Article types | Structure | Language & text | Data & Symbols | Figures & Tables | References
To prepare a manuscript, follow the guidelines below, and contact the Editor-in-Chief if you have any questions. Except for reviews, all submissions must be made electronically through this website. Once submitted, authors can track the submission and communicate with the editors via the online journal management system.
Remember that submission of an article will be taken to imply that it is unpublished and not being considered for publication elsewhere. Any allegations of plagiarism or self-plagiarism made to the journal will be investigated by the editor of the journal. Authors are responsible for obtaining permission to reproduce any material (including illustrations) for which they do not hold copyright. For more information about this, please check the submissions page.
All word limits include referencing and citation.
To ensure blind peer review, please only list the title and abstract on the submitted manuscript file.
The names of all authors, affiliations, contact details, biography (optional) and the corresponding author details must be completed online as part of the submission process. All authors must fit within the journal's definition of an author, available here.
Author names should include a forename and a surname. Forenames cannot include only initials.
The affiliation should ideally include ‘Department, Institution, City, Country’. However only the Institution and Country are mandatory.
Research articles must have the main text prefaced by an abstract of no more than 250 words summarising the main arguments and conclusions of the article. This must have the heading ‘Abstract’ and be easily identified from the start of the main text.
A list of up to six keywords should be added to the metadata when making the initial online submission. The selection of appropriate keywords assists in discoverability of your article. Avoid using keywords that also appear in the title.
The body of the submission should be structured in a logical and easy to follow manner. A clear introduction section should be given that allows non-specialists in the subject an understanding of the publication and a background of the issue(s) involved. Methods, results, discussion and conclusion sections may then follow to clearly detail the information and research presented.
Up to three level headings may be present and must be clearly identifiable using different font sizes, bold or italics. We suggest using Headings 1, 2 and 3 in MS-Word’s ‘Style’ section.
Supplementary Files (optional)
Any supplementary/additional files that should link to the main publication must be listed, with a corresponding number, title and option description. Ideally, the supplementary files are also cited in the main text.
e.g. Supplementary file 1: Appendix. Scientific data related to the experiments.
Note: additional files will not be typeset, so they must be provided in their final form. They will be assigned a DOI and linked to from the publication.
If data, structured methods or code used in the research project have been made openly available, a statement should be added to inform the reader how/where to access these files. This should include the repository location and the DOI linking to it. Read our reproducibility guide for more information on best practice and maximising the impact of your open data.
If data used in the research project has not been made available, a statement confirming this should be added, along with reasoning why.
The journal's data policy is available on the Editorial Policies page.
Ethics and consent (if applicable)
Research involving human subjects, human material, or human data, must have been performed in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki. Where applicable, studies must have been approved by an appropriate ethics committee and the authors should include a statement within the article text detailing this approval, including the name of the ethics committee and reference number of the approval. The identity of the research subject(s) should be anonymised whenever possible. For research involving human subjects, informed consent to participate in the study must be obtained from participants (or their legal guardian) and added to this statement. If a study involving human subjects/tissue/data was exempt from requiring ethical approval, a confirmation statement from the relevant body should be included within the submission.
Experiments using animals must follow national standards of care. For further information, click here.
Any acknowledgements must be headed and in a separate paragraph, placed after the main text but before the reference list.
Funding Information (if applicable)
Should the research have received a funding grant, then the grant provider and grant number should be detailed.
If any of the authors have any competing interests then these must be declared. A short paragraph should be placed before the references. Guidelines for competing interests can be found here. If there are no competing interests to declare then the following statement should be present: The author(s) has/have no competing interests to declare.
A sentence or a short paragraph detailing the roles that each author held to contribute to the authorship of the submission. Individuals listed must fit within the definition of an author, as per our authorship guidelines.
All references cited within the submission must be listed at the end of the main text file.
Style guide: After consulting this style sheet first, follow Chicago Manual of Style, 17th Ed.
Dictionary: Use one consistently (Oxford; Merriam-Webster, etc.)
Capitalise all nouns, pronouns, adjectives, verbs, adverbs and subordinate conjunctions (i.e. as, because, although). Use lowercase for all articles, coordinate conjunctions and prepositions.
Headings within the main text
First level headings in the text should follow the same rule as the main title.
Avoid second-level headings. If they must be used, only capitalise first letter and proper nouns.
NOTE: Headings should not be longer than 75 characters.
Essays are submitted in English. Authors are welcome to use American, British, Canadian, or Australian spellings as long as they are used consistently throughout.
When referring to proper nouns and normal institutional titles, the official, original spelling must be used.
American, British, Canadian, or Australian grammar rules may be used as long as they are used consistently and match the spelling format (see above). For instance, one may use a serial comma or not.
The font used should be commonly available and in an easily readable size. This may be changed during the typesetting process and will not necessarily be the published font.
Underlined text should be avoided whenever possible.
Italicised text to emphasise a point is permitted, although should be restricted to minimal occurrences to maximise their effect.
Use bullet points to denote a list without hierarchy or order of value. If the list indicates a specific sequence then a numbered list must be used.
Lists should be used sparingly to maximise their effect.
For consistent appearance across the journal, use single quotation marks except for quotes within a quote, in which case double quotation marks are used.
End punctuation follows the end quotation mark.
Quotations that are longer than three lines in length must be in an indented paragraph (a block quote) separate from the main text.
The standard, non-italicised font of the main text must also be used for all quotes.
It must be clear from the text and/or citation where the quote comes from. If the quoted material is under copyright, then permission will need to be obtained from the copyright holder.
If some of the original quote is being omitted then an ellipsis with a space on either side must be used to break the text.
Words added to text of the original quote, to enhance clarity, must be placed within square brackets
Acronyms and abbreviations
With abbreviations, the goal is to ensure that the reader — particularly one who may not be fully familiar with the topic or context being addressed — is able to follow along. Spell out almost all acronyms on first use, indicating the acronym in parentheses immediately thereafter. Use the acronym for all subsequent references.
A number of abbreviations are so common that they do not require the full text on the first instance. Examples of these can be found at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Manual_of_Style/Abbreviations#Miscellanea
Abbreviations should usually be in capital letters without full stops.
Common examples from Latin origin do not follow this rule and should be lower case and can include full stops.
To ensure impartiality, trade names should be avoided in favour of generic names, unless absolutely necessary. If a trade name is mentioned then its inclusion must be put in context and explained/justified.
Use of endnotes
Use endnotes rather than footnotes (we refer to these as ‘Notes’ in the online publication). Please use the automated footnote/endnote insertion tool so that the numerical markers in the text are linked to their corresponding numbers in the list of endnotes.
All notes should be used only where crucial clarifying information needs to be conveyed.
Avoid using notes for purposes of referencing. This is because each in-text citations will be hyperlinked to its bibliographical entry. Therefore, use in-text citations, even if not as a direct source, e.g., ‘(see Cohen 2014 for more on this topic)’. If in-text citations cannot be used, a source can be cited as part of a note.
Whenever possible, avoid using notes for additional discussion.
Please insert the endnote marker after the end punctuation (though in front of a semi-colon).
Foreign language titles
For titles of books or organizations, preserve the original language; this journal is international in readership.
• Organisation: Original language (abbreviation [if the abbreviation is used from hereon in]; English translation)
• Title of book [square brackets show the translated portion, which is not in italics, is not part of the original title]: Architectura. Dat is constelicke bouwijnghen huijt die Antijcken ende Modernen [Artful Buildings from the Antique and the Modern]
Symbols are permitted within the main text and datasets as long as they are commonly in use or have explanatory definition on their first usage.
Hyphenation, em and en dashes
There is no set rule on the use of hyphenation between words, as long as they are consistently used.
Em dashes should be used sparingly. If they are present, they should denote emphasis, change of thought or interruption to the main sentence and can replace comas, parentheses, colons or semicolons. Place a space on either side of the em dash.
En dashes can be used to replace ‘to’ when indicating a range, but only in text within parentheses or in notes. No spaces should surround the dash.
For numbers zero to nine please spell the whole words. Please use figures for numbers 10 or higher.
We are happy for authors to use either words or figures to represent large whole figures (i.e. one million or 1,000,000) as long as the usage is consistent throughout the text.
If the sentence includes a series of numbers then figures must be used in each instance.
If the number appears as part of a dataset, in conjunction with a symbol or as part of a table, then the figure must be used.
If a number is presented with a symbol, then the figure must be not separated from the unit by a space.
If a sentence starts with a number, it must be spelled out, or the sentence should be rewritten so that it no longer starts with the number.
When a number consists of more than four digits it must be split by a comma (not a point) after every three digits to the left of the decimal place.
Do not use a comma for a decimal place.
Numbers that are less than zero must have ‘0’ precede the decimal point.
Units of measurement
If units of measure are unusual, spell them out at first mention. Otherwise, when a unit of measure appears after a number, either spell it out (kilometres/kilometers) or use its symbol (km), but do it consistently throughout the manuscript.
Months and years
In the main text, months must be written in full. If displayed as part of a dataset, then a shortened version is acceptable as long as the meaning is still clear. Months should always begin with a capital letter.
Use figures for years, decades and centuries. Do not include an apostrophe before the ‘s’.
When presented in the main text, fractions must be written in non-hyphenated words, not figures.
If the currency is unclear from the symbol then it must be written in full for the first use and then abbreviated there after
There must be no space between the currency symbol and the number.
All figures must be uploaded separately as supplementary files during the submission process, if possible in colour and at a resolution of at least 300dpi. Each file should not be more than 20MB. Standard formats accepted are: JPG, TIFF, GIF, PNG, EPS. For line drawings, please provide the original vector file (e.g. .ai, or .eps).
Authors are encouraged to use images from open access repositories, under creative common licence, and the like, and this information must be included in the captions, preferably with a link to the originating site.
Figures, including graphs and diagrams, must be professionally and clearly presented. If a figure is not easy to understand or does not appear to be of a suitable quality, the editor may ask the author to re-render or omit it. The editorial team will not crop, resize, or otherwise alter image files.
Images must be presented as separated figures. Figures containing two or more combined images will be allowed only in exceptional cases.
If your figure file includes text, then please present the font as Ariel, Helvetica, or Verdana. This will mean that it matches the typeset text.
All figures must be cited within the main text, in consecutive order using Arabic numerals. Figure numbers referred to specifically in the running text should be spelled out, such as, ‘in Figure 1’.
Figure titles and legends should be placed within the text document after the paragraph of their first citation.
The source of the image should be included, along with any relevant copyright information (no need to include the copyright symbol unless required in writing by the copyright holder) and a statement of authorisation (if needed). If using images from an archive then please provide the name of the archive, the collection and the acquisition number. The first example of a caption below is to an image from a source that is in the public domain.
Examples of captions:
Figure 1: S.-C. Constant-Dufeux, obverse face of the medal of the Société centrale des architectes (c. 1843–1849) (Constant-Dufeux 1849: pl. 17).
[example of descriptive title and standard in-text citation]
Figure 2: ‘New Royal Exchange — (From the Architect’s Drawing)’, Illustrated London News, 4 June 1844. © The British Library Board.
[example of title from the original caption, no in-text citation, copyright symbol included to acknowledge the source; a copyright symbol is not usually required in a caption)
Tables must not be submitted as image files. The copy-editor must be able to edit the text in the table, and the journal’s designer must be able to manipulate the table to fit as necessary.
All tables must be cited within the main text, numbered with Arabic numerals in consecutive order (e.g. Table 1, Table 2, etc.). The shortened word ‘Tab’ should not be used to cite a table.
Each table must have an accompanying descriptive title. This should clearly and concisely summarise the content and/or use of the table. A short additional table legend is optional to offer a further description of the table. The table title and legend should be placed underneath the table.
Tables should not include:
NOTE: If there are more columns than can fit on a single page, then the table will be placed horizontally on the page. If it still can't fit horizontally on a page, the table will be broken into two.
Every use of information from other sources must be cited in the text, whether paraphrased or directly quoted, so it is clear when external material has been used.
The journal uses an author-date reference system, in which short identifying material is placed within the text in parentheses (usually an author and date), which matches precisely the first words (usually author and date) of an entry in the reference list. The material in parentheses is hyperlinked to the citation in the reference list.
The general principle is to use the author’s last name plus date. If there is no author, a shortened version of the title can be used. Avoid using “Anonymous,” unless the publication itself uses that word as author.
If the author is already mentioned in the main text, then the year should follow the name within parentheses.
When the same source is quoted consecutively, repeat only the date and, if applicable, page numbers.
If the author name is not mentioned in the main text, then the surname and year should be inserted, in parentheses, after the relevant text. Multiple citations should be separated by a semi-colon and follow alphabetical order.
If three or fewer authors are cited from the same citation then all should be listed. If four or more authors are part of the citation then ‘et al.’ should follow the first author name.
If citations are used from the same author and the same year, then a lowercase letter, starting from ‘a’, should be placed after the year.
If specific pages are being cited then the page number should follow the year, after a colon.
For sources that involve more than one volume, include the volume number after the year, preceding the colon. The example here is of a complex source, which the author wanted to cite in its original form, but also the translation.
For publications authored and published by organisations, use the short form of the organisation’s name or its acronym in lieu of the full name.
(ICRC 2000) NOT (International Committee of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies 2000)
International Committee of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies. 2000…
For articles from newspapers for which no author is given, use a short title, cut off at a logical place (don’t interrupt a phrase, for example).
The very first of L’Illustration’s texts on skyscrapers in New York included various quantitative features of a building (overall height, number of floors, depth of foundations, weight of steel, overall weight) without ever mentioning its name or location (‘Les constructions géantes’, 1896).
Les constructions géantes à New-York. 1896. L’Illustration, November 14, p. 394.
Please do not include URLs in parenthetical citations within the running text, but rather cite the author or page title and then include all details, including the URL, in the reference list.
If archival material is cited in a manuscript submission, the author may create a logical system of reference, as long as it is used consistently within the article and follows these general guidelines to ensure correspondence with the overall author-date, linked system used in Architectural Histories.
Rules to be follow:
In-text citations (less than 30 characters)
End-note citations (more than 30 characters)
The reference format for the archive in the list of references is given below.
All citations must be listed at the end of the text file, in alphabetical order of authors’ surnames or title (if no author). If both published and unpublished sources have been used, they should be organized under different headings: “Unpublished Sources” and “Published Sources.”
All reading materials should be included in the ‘References’ list. Works not cited within the main text, but which the author wishes to share with the reader, must be cited as additional information in endnotes explaining the relevance of the work. This will ensure that all works within the reference list are cited within the text.
NOTE: If multiple works by the same author are being listed, please re-type the author’s name out for each entry, rather than using a long dash.
NOTE: DOIs should be included for online reference entries, where possible. This applies mainly to online journal and book publications. A free DOI lookup tool can be found at: http://www.crossref.org/guestquery/. If a DOI has not been registered for the article then the URL or alternative persistent identifier can be used. Please ensure that these are working links prior to sending for typesetting.
The DOI should be included according to one of the following formats (test the DOI provided with the article you are citing to see which method works to direct reader to that site):
This journal uses the Harvard system – see below for examples of how to format:
Author, AA. Year. Title. Place of publication: Publisher.
Adam, DJ. 1984. Stakeholder Analysis. 2nd ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Silverman, DF and Propp, KK (eds.). 1990. The Active Interview. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
Chapter within books:
Author, A. Year. Title Chapter. In: Editor, E and Editor, F (eds.) Book Title. Place of publication: Publisher. Page range.
Achebe, C. 1995. Colonialist Criticism. In: Ashcroft, B et al. (eds.). The Post Colonial Studies Reader. London: Routledge. pp. 57–61.
Author, A. Year. Title. Journal name, vol(issue): page. DOI
Martin, L. 2010. Bombs, Bodies and Biopolitics: Securitizing the Subject at Airport Security. Social and Cultural Geography, 11(1): 17–34. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14649360903414585
NOTE: Please include DOIs for all journal articles where possible.
Newspaper articles [print]:
Author, A. Year. Title. Newspaper, date of publication, page.
Tate, P. 2007. Illicit Organ Trade increasing. The Jordan Times, 6 June, p. 3.
Newspaper articles [online]:
Author, A. Year. Title. Newspaper, date of publication, [URL and last accessed date].
Patel, SS. 2005. Climate; In a Marsh, Sifting the Past And Seeing the Future. The New York Times, 6 November [online access at http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9800EEDF173EF935A35752C1A9639C8B63 last accessed 28 April 2014].
Author, A. Year. Title of chapter. In: Title of conference proceedings, location, on date, pp. page.
Lynch, M. 2003. Dialogue in an Age of Terror. In: The Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association, Philadelphia, PA on 18 August 2003, pp. 4–7.
Organisational publications/Grey literature:
Author group. Year. Title. Place of publication: Publisher
World Health Organization. 2010. The World Health Report – Health Systems Financing: The Path to Universal Coverage. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO.
Theses and dissertations:
Author, A. Year. Title. Unpublished thesis (PhD), institution.
Yudis, A. 2004. Failed Responsibility of the Media in the War on Iraq. Unpublished thesis (PhD), University of Manchester.
Webpages / PDFs:
Author, A. Year. Title, date of publication. Available at URL [Last accessed date month year].
Pascual, Amb. C. 2005. Stabilization and Reconstruction: Building Peace in a Hostile Environment. Prepared statement to Senate Committee on Foreign Relations, 16 June 2005. Available at http://2001-2009.state.gov/s/crs/rls/rm/48644.htm [Last accessed 14 August 2012].
Author, A. Year. Title. Revised by A Editor and B Editor. Place of publication: Publisher.
Wittkower, R. 1999. Art and Architecture in Italy 1600–1750, Early Baroque. Rev. by J Connors and J Montagu. New Haven and London: Yale University Press.
Author, A. Year. Title. Trans. by A Translator. Place of publication: Publisher.
Rowe, C. 1990. La matematica della villa ideale. Trans. by P Berdini. Bologna: Zanichelli.
Author, A. Year. Title. Trans. by A Translator and B Translator. Place of publication: Publisher.
Palladio, A. 1997. The Four Books on Architecture. Trans. by R Tavernor and R Schofield. Cambridge, MA and London: MIT Press.
Author, A. Year. Title. Trans. by A Translator and B Translator. Place of publication: Publisher. (First published: Author, A. Year. Original Title. Place of publication: Publisher.)
Le Corbusier. 2000. The Modulor. Trans. by P De Francia and A Bostock. Basel: Harvard University Press. (First published: Le Corbusier. 1950. Le Modulor: Essai sur une mesure harmonique à l’échelle humaine, applicable universellement à l’architecture et à la mécanique. Boulogne: L’Architecture d’aujourd’hui.)
Short reference to fonds or collection identical to in-text citation and/or endnote (Location, archive, fonds)